If you are familiar with both Windows and Ubuntu, you’ll notice that Ubuntu does not have any Safe Mode or Auto repair tools, as Windows has.
Ubuntu’s latest version 16.04 requires at least 2 GHz dual-core processor, 2GB ram, and 25 GB space in HDD. However, even if you are using an older version such as 14.04 workarounds described in this guide will work similarly to the latest version of Ubuntu.
Ubuntu does provide a Recovery menu as well as reinstall option using that you can fix a Ubuntu installation without getting affected your programs and files. This guide is dedicated on How to repair Ubuntu if it won’t boot and you’ll find ways to give life to your existing Ubuntu installation.
NOTE: If you notice that your PC is not booting anything, or you are not able to boot up via a USB and Live CD, you need to check the configuration of your Pc’s boot order. However, if this does not help you might like it, but you probably need a hardware update.
How to Repair GRUB2 When Ubuntu won’t Boot
Ubuntu 16.04 LTS and other Linux distribution make use of the GRUB2 boot loader, which means if there is a problem with your GRUB2 boot loader, maybe that is why you are not able to boot Ubuntu. However, it can be solved by repairing the GRUB2 boot loader. Follow the steps and you’ll learn How to repair Ubuntu if it won’t boot by fixing the GRUB boot loader.
To check if you have access to GURB2 boot loader, start your computer while holding the SHIFT button. It should open a menu which contains the list of installed Operating systems. If you see the menu, means you just accessed the Grub boot loader.
Another side of the coin, if you did not see a menu with boot options. Possibilities are that your GRUB boot loader is not functioning and preventing Ubuntu from boot. GRUB boot loader can be overwritten if you install Windows OS after Ubuntu Installation. Installing windows make it is own boot loader to the boot sector, so unless you fix GRUB boot loader, you will not be able to boot into Ubuntu.
If you worried that if you repair the GRUB boot loader maybe it will prevent Windows to boot and make only Ubuntu boot. GRUB can also be used to set a Dual-boot environment on your PC. basically, you should install any Linux distribution after installing Windows, it will result a dual-boot setup through GRUB.
However, of course, something goes wrong with your GRUB boot loader, and here is how to fix it. How to Repair GRUB2 When Ubuntu will not Boot:
To repair the GRUB, you need a Ubuntu Installation USB or Disc. Because you need to boot into the Linux system in order to repair GRUB. In this section, we could help you reinstalling GRUB2 boot loader on Ubuntu. You can use either the graphical installer or simple terminal commands. But for that, you may need to download a Linux distribution and burn into a USB or disc, but read next to find a simple method.
To make this easier, you can just use this dedicated Boot repair disc and your Pc will be booted directly to the graphical boot repair tool.
Once this tool did repair the GRUB Bootloader, you can restart your computer and this time Ubuntu should load fine. (The GRUB2 is hidden, you need to press and hold SHIFT button during the boot process.)
If this did not help in your case, you might be a more serious problem. In such case you need to repair Ubuntu installation using the GRUB.
How to Repair Ubuntu If It Won’t Boot
Once you see the GRUB boot menu, you’ll find options to repair your system. You need to choose the ‘Advanced options for Ubuntu’ option with the help of arrow keys and press enter. A submenu will be open, on that choose ‘Ubuntu .. (recovery mode) and press enter.
The GRUB should boot your Ubuntu system in recovery mode menu, and your files will also load in a read-only mode. You’ll see a bunch of different options, here are the details of the options.
Select an option and press enter.
Clean: This command will try to free up space on your file system. This is only helpful if your storage is full and because of that Ubuntu is not booting.
dpkg: It is helpful, and it does repair broken software-packages.
failsafeX: Corrects any problem due to a graphics driver or graphical server configuration.
fsck: It will scan the filesystem and fix any errors.
grub: Ths will update the GRUB bootloader. This will not help if you can access the grub boot loader.
Network: Turns on networking, because it is disabled in the recovery mode.
root: Starts the root shell prompt and from here you can give commands and can fix problems with your Ubuntu installation. Us this if you know how to use it and what you are doing. Because it is advanced and why to fix the problem on your own.
Reinstall Ubuntu While Keeping Files and Programs.
If there is still a problem booting your Ubuntu installation you are left with one last option. You are still able to boot up Ubuntu with a USB or Live CD. Boot up using the installation media, the Ubuntu setup should be able to fund the existing installation and offer a ‘reinstall Ubuntu’ option.
Choose the option, and a reinstall will be performed. It will keep your files and personal settings. It can also keep software packages and your other personal data. The reinstall feature will vanish the system related settings and will make the default. So that should correct all the gimmicks and errors by any system setting configuration.
If you select that option and go through the process to reinstall Ubuntu, the GRUB2 will also be reinstalled; it’ll fix any configuration error. This method will fix your Ubuntu if didn’t boot. Because theoretically you did installed the Ubuntu like you installed the Ubuntu first time.
However, if you are still not able to boot Ubuntu, I think there is a problem with your PC’s hardware or maybe with hard disk drive.
Use Another Ubuntu version.
Alternative by any mean you may always want to use the latest version of Ubuntu, which is 16.04 right now. It is also advisable that according to your Computer requirement you may need a lower version, you can find all the Ubuntu LTS versions here (where LTS stands for long-term support).
Unlike Windows, Ubuntu comes preloaded with such VLC, GIMP and other apps. So moving from Windows to Ubuntu should be very hard. If you have any query concerns in How to repair Ubuntu if it doesn’t boot, the comment section is just a scroll away.
How To Clone A Hard Drive
In this world, where data plays a significant role while being associated with almost every system, it’s security, usability and portability becomes the primary concern. This is the moment where disk cloning comes to the rescue.
The inception of disk cloning can be traced from somewhere around or a little before the introduction of the operating system “Windows 95”. This was the time when some computer system manufacturers used to take help of external hardware disk copying machines to copy software.
In this article, we will tell you how to clone a hard drive? in easy and single steps. So let’s get started:
What is meant by disk cloning?
Disk cloning is simply the process of copying or cloning the content or data of a system’s hard disk to another hard disk.
Disk cloning is slightly different from the “Straightaway copying technique” because it also copies the content which is hidden and typically not available for copying.
When to image a drive and when to clone it?
As already mentioned that disk cloning is the process of copying the data which also includes the data which is primarily not available for copying while disk imaging is the process of replicating the entire disk into another one.
It is usually done by creating the sector by sector copy of the source drive.
It is also independent of the file system. The disk imaging file format can be open standards like the ISO file format. Now the question arises that when to clone a drive and when to image a drive?
It is a quite obvious fact that cloning and imaging are the subordinates of a single term that is “Copying” and this is why they are quite similar in terms of their work but disk imaging can serve you better while you need to back up your data.
On the other hand, cloning makes more sense and is an easy option while you have to go for a device upgrade. Imaging is considered as a good option while going for backup because one can put multiple image backups into a single and sufficient external drive.
How to clone a hard disk?
In order to get started with, we must be aware of some terminologies associated with this concept. Source disk: When we say “Source Disk,” we are talking of the drive which we want to clone.
Destination disk: It is the disk where we want to clone the source disk. One important feature of the destination disk is that it must be larger or equivalent to the source disk regarding memory space.
How to clone a hard drive in Windows?
Windows does not have any built-in application for cloning a drive, but you can certainly clone a disk by making use of third-party software such as AOMEI Backupper, EaseUs and many more.
As we have mentioned that there are a plethora of disk cloning utilities available for windows but for the sake of ease and simplicity, we will be using Macrium Reflect disk cloning utility software for the purpose of illustration.
Step #1: You will have to download and install the Macrium Reflect disk cloning utility software. You can download it from here. Although it is available in two versions, one paid and the other free but the free version can satisfy most of your needs. Go for the one which best suits your pocket.
Step #2: Once downloaded, you are required to install the software. Do the required and once done then proceed for the next step.
Step #3: In this step, you will have to attach the drive where you want to clone your disk. The word of caution says that the destination disk must have more space than the source drive in order to complete the process of cloning.
Step #4: Now, open the Macrium Reflect application.
Step #5: In the Macrium Reflect window, select the drive which you want to clone and click on “Clone this disk” which is positioned in between the window.
Step #6: After successfully completing step #5, in the subsequent window you will be asked to choose the destination drive. You can do so by clicking on the “Select disk to restore to” link which will give you a drop-down list of the drives which are available.
Step #7: Select the destination disk where you want to clone your source drive.
Step #8: Drag and drop the source drive which you wish to clone to the destination drive and then click on Next button.
Step #9: A preview window will pop up. Click on a finish to finalize the process.
How to clone a hard disk in Mac?
One needs not to download and install any software or utility in order to clone a hard disk in the Mac operating system. It has a built-in application named as Disk Utility program with which one can easily clone a hard disk.
However, if you want to make use of any third party application while cloning a drive then you can consider SuperDuper or Carbon Copy Cloner.
Step #1: Plug in the destination drive in your system.
Step #2: Open disk utility program by following the mentioned path. Go to User -> Application -> Utilities -> Disk Utility.
Step #3: In the next window, select the drive in which you want to clone the source drive. Once done then click on the restore tab positioned at the extreme right at the top.
Step #4: In the next step, select your destination folder where you would like the clone everything into. It must be done next to the destination field.
Step #5: The last step includes clicking on the restore button. If everything goes well, the accumulative efforts of these steps will result in the cloning of your source drive to the destination drive.
The word of caution says that you should not keep anything important in the destination drive because in this entire process every single thing will get erased from the destination folder in order to accommodate the drive which is set to be cloned.
Does this mark the end of this tutorial cum guide on how to clone a hard drive? We hope that this article has helped you to find out how you can clone a disk in easy and simple steps.
If it has helped you in any way, then do not forget to share it among your social peers. Thank you for passing by and giving it a read.
How To Check File Permissions in Linux OS
Linux system OS uses a authorizations schema to determine customer privileges for each computer file. These authorizations establish:
- who can study the computer file? If the computer file is a listing, the study indicates record the material of the listing.
- who can write/modify the computer file? If the computer file is a listing, this authorization describes if you can make any changes to the listing material, for example, make or remove information.
- who can perform the computer file? If the computer file is a listing, this authorization describes if you can get into the listing and access its material, for example, run a search in the listing or perform a program in it.
Permissions are allocated to the computer file proprietor, to the computer file proprietor team, and to all customers. For example, you can set a paper to be understandable and writable by the proprietor only, and just understandable by everybody else.
When you issue an ls –l control, to record all material of a listing, you will see computer file authorizations like this next to each file:
This indicates this computer file can be studied, published and implemented by anybody. The first sprint indicates this computer file is not a listing. For internet directories, there will be a correspondence instead of a sprint.
The first set of “rwx” represents the computer file proprietor. The second set, to the proprietor team. The last set, to all other customers. Let us look at some examples:
-rwxr – – r – –
This computer file can be studied, published and implemented by its proprietor. It can only be studied by other customers. When authorization is not set, you see a sprint in its place.
This computer file can be study and published by its proprietor and the proprietor team. It can only be studied by other customers.
You can set these authorizations using the chmod control. For example, this command:
chmod ugo=rwx filename
assigns study, make and perform authorizations to computer file proprietor user(u), group(g) and others (o). This other example:
chmod ug=rw,o=r filename
Assigns study authorizations to customer and team, and only study authorization to others.
Permissions can also be indicated and set using the octal number program. Each authorization is associated with a number:
Read = 4
Write = 2
Execute = 1
You need to come up with a variety for the computer file proprietor, another variety for the team and a last one for the other customers.
If you want to allocate study, make and perform authorizations to computer file proprietor, you add up the three principles, thus getting a 7. If you want to allocate the same authorizations to the team and others, you come up with three sevens. You can set these authorizations like this:
chmod 777 filename
If you set authorizations for a computer file with the following command:
chmod 764 filename
Then you are developing these permissions: study, make and perform for computer file proprietor (4+2+1=7), study for the team (4+2=6) and only study for others (4).
The following orders are equivalent:
chmod ug=rw,o=r filename
chmod 664 filename
The computer file authorizations schema allows you to apply security guidelines. It is not a wise decision to set computer file authorizations high (e.g.: 777) for all information.
It is important to think about it and allocate the right authorizations to the information, so customers can do their job, and we are sure each computer file is utilized only by the right people.
Sameer is a writer and blogger, loves to explore and write about Seo, blogging and various technology and internet trends. I have 7 years experience in IT.
How to Install Wine on Linux, CentOS and Fedora
Wine is an open source application for Linux that enables users to run Windows Application on Unix/Linux operating system. Wine has widely used the application on Linux OS because of its great features.
That’s why the Wine team keeps releasing their new versions every two weeks to solve bugs and with some additional improvements. To know about the changes and improvements of Wine then you can visit here.
We all know Linux, CentOS and Fedora are command based operating system, so If you want to install any application in Unix operating system then you have to know which commands are to be used.
In this article, I will guide you the simplest way to install the latest version of Wine in Linux, CentOS and Fedora using commands.
Follow the steps on “How to install Wine on Linux, CentOS and Fedora“.
Step by Step Guide on How to install Wine on Linux, CentOS and Fedora :
Step 1: First you have to install dependency packages. Install them using YUM command. Open the terminal by pressing “Ctrl+Alt+T” to execute following commands in the open terminal:
# yum -y install libX11-devel freetype-devel flex bison
Step 2: Now, you have to run command for downloading the latest version of Wine on your Linux based operating system. The file will be downloaded in /tmp directory (by default no need to change) as a normal user. Execute the following command:
$ cd /tmp
$ wget http://garr.dl.sourceforge.net/project/wine/Source/wine-1.5.26.tar.bz2
Step 3: After downloading you have to extract wine from the specified folder, for that you have to execute the following command:
$ tar -xvf wine-1.5.26.tar.bz2 -C /tmp/
Step 4: Now, you have to install Wine on your operating system, just run as a normal user and note that it can ask root password in between the installation. The installation will take up to 20-30 minutes. Don’t be in a hurry, wait for the installation to complete. Run the following command:
$ cd wine-1.5.26/
Step 5: Once the installation is complete run the “winecfg” configuration tool for KDE or GNOME desktop to see the supported configuration. In case, if you don’t have then you can install it by using the below command as the root user.
# yum groupinstall “X Window System” “GNOME Desktop Environment”
# yum groupinstall “X Window System” “KDE (K Desktop Environment)”
Step 6: Once you have installed the X Window System, run the command as a normal user to see the wine configuration.
Step 7: Now, all the process is completed and I hope you have also successfully installed Wine so now it’s time to run it. To run Wine, you must specify the full path to the executable program. For example, shown below:
$ wine notepad
$ wine notepad.exe
$ wine c:\windows\notepad.exe
The above is the complete guide to install Wine on Linux, CentOS and Fedora, if you face any problem or error regarding it then share your comments below by the comment form so that we can help you to solve your problem easily and quickly!
How to install/update VLC on Ubuntu/Linux/Linux Mint
If I ask which is the best audio/video player for PC then the reply will be only one,i.e., “VLC Media Player”.VLC – the most used and download media player supporting in all OS like Windows, Mac OS, Linux, etc.
VLC can play all the video and audio formats files (MPEG, DivX/Xvid, Ogg, and many more) as well as DVDs, VCDs, and various streaming protocols. If you want to install VLC on Windows then it is a very easy task but if you want to install VLC on Ubuntu, Linux, Mac OS, etc. then it’s a little bit difficult.
So, I will teach you, “How to install and update VLC on Ubuntu/Linux/Linux Mint to the latest release“.
Simple steps to install and update VLC on Ubuntu/Linux/Linux as follows:
- Make sure you have a working internet connection
- Then, you have to open a terminal by pressing “Ctrl+Alt+T” to execute the following commands
- After opening the terminal copy the following commands in a new Terminal window
- Commands are as follows:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:videolan/stable-daily
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install vlc
- Check the terminal if all the process is over then close it and check by playing audio/video whether VLC is installed correctly or not.
- If yes, then Enjoy!
A simple procedure to follow to install/update vlc on Ubuntu/Linux/Linux Mint. If you have any query or problem regarding installing or updating VLC then put your comments in the below comment box so that we can help you.
You can visit the official VLC media player website to know about the latest release and bugs fixes.
How to Get the Google Chrome Standalone Installer
If you are reading this article, you must be on some sort of Internet Browser. Go ahead, tell me what browser is it?
Chances are it is Google Chrome!
Chrome is hands down the most preferred browser right now and with good reason too. The only hindrance to it is that you will have to download it off the internet every time you use a fresh installation of your desktop OS.
Well, not anymore! We have for you the chrome standalone installer!
But, before we get to that, let us find out why we are listing Chrome as the first choice browser and not any other browser.
Why Chrome of All Browsers?
Well, the answer is relatively simple. Chrome is the best browser around.
“But on what grounds?”, you ask.
On several, actually. Chrome has been found to be the fastest and most stable browser around.
Competitors Firefox and Microsoft with their new Edge browser seem to be catching up, but Chrome is yet to give up its crown. Opera had a salient feature with data connectivity, but even that has been remedied with a chrome plug-in.
Another feature that Chrome offers is syncing tabs and histories and passwords between the mobile and desktop counterparts and this is one feature that no one yet has been able to implement so perfectly!
Why the Chrome Standalone Installer?
You all must be wondering, what is the use of having a google chrome offline download because it’s an internet browser! It won’t function without the internet!
Well, let me give you three scenarios where you’d have to download chrome offline!
- If due to work or some other reason you have to install the browser on many machines simultaneously, then the chrome standalone installer comes in incredibly handy!
- If you’re on a very slow internet connection, then downloading Chrome every time you start from a fresh install of your OS can be tiresome! The google chrome offline download the app will save you some precious time!
- If you’re on a metered connection then installing Chrome via online methods will blow a part of your data cap away! Download chrome offline for such situations.
How to use the Chrome Standalone Installer
There are two main environments where Chrome runs. Windows and Linux. We will discuss how to use the Chrome Standalone Installer in both of these.
As an extra, a valid and up to date link to the Android apk for Chrome will also be provided should one want it available on their Android devices!
#1. Offline Installer for Windows
Windows come loaded by default with Intenet Explorer. However, most of us substitute it with Chrome right off the bat!
For the installation procedure to be completely offline we will need to follow the steps as listed below.
The first order of business is to check the architecture of the system we are running. We have to find out if we are running the 32 or 64-bit architecture of Windows.
This can be done with relative ease by right-clicking on the Computer icon> Properties.
We also have a choice of the operating system here, 32 or 64 bit and based on what we found in Step 1 we install the version of Windows relevant to us.
64-bit users of Windows offline will find it at this link.
The installer is saved on a thumb drive and is ready to be utilized on any Windows-based PC.
#2. Offline Installer for Linux
Now things can get a wee bit more tricky for Linux users out there. There are 4 main versions available!
Figure out if you’re running the 32 or 64-bit version of your OS just like before and if you’re using Ubuntu or Fedora. Unfortunately, these are the only two Linux distros officially supported by Google.
If you have any other distro you may check out community builds in the link here.
Now head on over to this link and choose the version you want to download!
And like before, put in a safe storage media for future offline installations!
#3. Offline Installer for Android
And now for the bonus round! Chrome is generally bundled with Android as part of the Google Apps package.
However, a situation with which Custom ROM flashers must be very familiar with is flashing a micro version of Gapps that doesn’t contain Google Chrome!
For those times you have to download chrome offline!
Here is the link to apk mirror for the latest apk of Chrome on Android.
And that brings us to the end of this article! If you are considering to upgrade to Windows 10, you might want to check out this article first!
Be sure to leave your comments down below and I’ll get back to you with the solutions to any questions you might have!
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