Linux system OS uses a authorizations schema to determine customer privileges for each computer file. These authorizations establish:
- who can study the computer file? If the computer file is a listing, the study indicates record the material of the listing.
- who can write/modify the computer file? If the computer file is a listing, this authorization describes if you can make any changes to the listing material, for example, make or remove information.
- who can perform the computer file? If the computer file is a listing, this authorization describes if you can get into the listing and access its material, for example, run a search in the listing or perform a program in it.
Permissions are allocated to the computer file proprietor, to the computer file proprietor team, and to all customers. For example, you can set a paper to be understandable and writable by the proprietor only, and just understandable by everybody else.
When you issue an ls –l control, to record all material of a listing, you will see computer file authorizations like this next to each file:
This indicates this computer file can be studied, published and implemented by anybody. The first sprint indicates this computer file is not a listing. For internet directories, there will be a correspondence instead of a sprint.
The first set of “rwx” represents the computer file proprietor. The second set, to the proprietor team. The last set, to all other customers. Let us look at some examples:
-rwxr – – r – –
This computer file can be studied, published and implemented by its proprietor. It can only be studied by other customers. When authorization is not set, you see a sprint in its place.
This computer file can be study and published by its proprietor and the proprietor team. It can only be studied by other customers.
You can set these authorizations using the chmod control. For example, this command:
chmod ugo=rwx filename
assigns study, make and perform authorizations to computer file proprietor user(u), group(g) and others (o). This other example:
chmod ug=rw,o=r filename
Assigns study authorizations to customer and team, and only study authorization to others.
Permissions can also be indicated and set using the octal number program. Each authorization is associated with a number:
Read = 4
Write = 2
Execute = 1
You need to come up with a variety for the computer file proprietor, another variety for the team and a last one for the other customers.
If you want to allocate study, make and perform authorizations to computer file proprietor, you add up the three principles, thus getting a 7. If you want to allocate the same authorizations to the team and others, you come up with three sevens. You can set these authorizations like this:
chmod 777 filename
If you set authorizations for a computer file with the following command:
chmod 764 filename
Then you are developing these permissions: study, make and perform for computer file proprietor (4+2+1=7), study for the team (4+2=6) and only study for others (4).
The following orders are equivalent:
chmod ug=rw,o=r filename
chmod 664 filename
The computer file authorizations schema allows you to apply security guidelines. It is not a wise decision to set computer file authorizations high (e.g.: 777) for all information.
It is important to think about it and allocate the right authorizations to the information, so customers can do their job, and we are sure each computer file is utilized only by the right people.
Sameer is a writer and blogger, loves to explore and write about Seo, blogging and various technology and internet trends. I have 7 years experience in IT.
How To Clone A Hard Drive
In this world, where data plays a significant role while being associated with almost every system, it’s security, usability and portability becomes the primary concern. This is the moment where disk cloning comes to the rescue.
The inception of disk cloning can be traced from somewhere around or a little before the introduction of the operating system “Windows 95”. This was the time when some computer system manufacturers used to take help of external hardware disk copying machines to copy software.
In this article, we will tell you how to clone a hard drive? in easy and single steps. So let’s get started:
What is meant by disk cloning?
Disk cloning is simply the process of copying or cloning the content or data of a system’s hard disk to another hard disk.
Disk cloning is slightly different from the “Straightaway copying technique” because it also copies the content which is hidden and typically not available for copying.
When to image a drive and when to clone it?
As already mentioned that disk cloning is the process of copying the data which also includes the data which is primarily not available for copying while disk imaging is the process of replicating the entire disk into another one.
It is usually done by creating the sector by sector copy of the source drive.
It is also independent of the file system. The disk imaging file format can be open standards like the ISO file format. Now the question arises that when to clone a drive and when to image a drive?
It is a quite obvious fact that cloning and imaging are the subordinates of a single term that is “Copying” and this is why they are quite similar in terms of their work but disk imaging can serve you better while you need to back up your data.
On the other hand, cloning makes more sense and is an easy option while you have to go for a device upgrade. Imaging is considered as a good option while going for backup because one can put multiple image backups into a single and sufficient external drive.
How to clone a hard disk?
In order to get started with, we must be aware of some terminologies associated with this concept. Source disk: When we say “Source Disk,” we are talking of the drive which we want to clone.
Destination disk: It is the disk where we want to clone the source disk. One important feature of the destination disk is that it must be larger or equivalent to the source disk regarding memory space.
How to clone a hard drive in Windows?
Windows does not have any built-in application for cloning a drive, but you can certainly clone a disk by making use of third-party software such as AOMEI Backupper, EaseUs and many more.
As we have mentioned that there are a plethora of disk cloning utilities available for windows but for the sake of ease and simplicity, we will be using Macrium Reflect disk cloning utility software for the purpose of illustration.
Step #1: You will have to download and install the Macrium Reflect disk cloning utility software. You can download it from here. Although it is available in two versions, one paid and the other free but the free version can satisfy most of your needs. Go for the one which best suits your pocket.
Step #2: Once downloaded, you are required to install the software. Do the required and once done then proceed for the next step.
Step #3: In this step, you will have to attach the drive where you want to clone your disk. The word of caution says that the destination disk must have more space than the source drive in order to complete the process of cloning.
Step #4: Now, open the Macrium Reflect application.
Step #5: In the Macrium Reflect window, select the drive which you want to clone and click on “Clone this disk” which is positioned in between the window.
Step #6: After successfully completing step #5, in the subsequent window you will be asked to choose the destination drive. You can do so by clicking on the “Select disk to restore to” link which will give you a drop-down list of the drives which are available.
Step #7: Select the destination disk where you want to clone your source drive.
Step #8: Drag and drop the source drive which you wish to clone to the destination drive and then click on Next button.
Step #9: A preview window will pop up. Click on a finish to finalize the process.
How to clone a hard disk in Mac?
One needs not to download and install any software or utility in order to clone a hard disk in the Mac operating system. It has a built-in application named as Disk Utility program with which one can easily clone a hard disk.
However, if you want to make use of any third party application while cloning a drive then you can consider SuperDuper or Carbon Copy Cloner.
Step #1: Plug in the destination drive in your system.
Step #2: Open disk utility program by following the mentioned path. Go to User -> Application -> Utilities -> Disk Utility.
Step #3: In the next window, select the drive in which you want to clone the source drive. Once done then click on the restore tab positioned at the extreme right at the top.
Step #4: In the next step, select your destination folder where you would like the clone everything into. It must be done next to the destination field.
Step #5: The last step includes clicking on the restore button. If everything goes well, the accumulative efforts of these steps will result in the cloning of your source drive to the destination drive.
The word of caution says that you should not keep anything important in the destination drive because in this entire process every single thing will get erased from the destination folder in order to accommodate the drive which is set to be cloned.
Does this mark the end of this tutorial cum guide on how to clone a hard drive? We hope that this article has helped you to find out how you can clone a disk in easy and simple steps.
If it has helped you in any way, then do not forget to share it among your social peers. Thank you for passing by and giving it a read.
How to Install Wine on Linux, CentOS and Fedora
Wine is an open source application for Linux that enables users to run Windows Application on Unix/Linux operating system. Wine has widely used the application on Linux OS because of its great features.
That’s why the Wine team keeps releasing their new versions every two weeks to solve bugs and with some additional improvements. To know about the changes and improvements of Wine then you can visit here.
We all know Linux, CentOS and Fedora are command based operating system, so If you want to install any application in Unix operating system then you have to know which commands are to be used.
In this article, I will guide you the simplest way to install the latest version of Wine in Linux, CentOS and Fedora using commands.
Follow the steps on “How to install Wine on Linux, CentOS and Fedora“.
Step by Step Guide on How to install Wine on Linux, CentOS and Fedora :
Step 1: First you have to install dependency packages. Install them using YUM command. Open the terminal by pressing “Ctrl+Alt+T” to execute following commands in the open terminal:
# yum -y install libX11-devel freetype-devel flex bison
Step 2: Now, you have to run command for downloading the latest version of Wine on your Linux based operating system. The file will be downloaded in /tmp directory (by default no need to change) as a normal user. Execute the following command:
$ cd /tmp
$ wget http://garr.dl.sourceforge.net/project/wine/Source/wine-1.5.26.tar.bz2
Step 3: After downloading you have to extract wine from the specified folder, for that you have to execute the following command:
$ tar -xvf wine-1.5.26.tar.bz2 -C /tmp/
Step 4: Now, you have to install Wine on your operating system, just run as a normal user and note that it can ask root password in between the installation. The installation will take up to 20-30 minutes. Don’t be in a hurry, wait for the installation to complete. Run the following command:
$ cd wine-1.5.26/
Step 5: Once the installation is complete run the “winecfg” configuration tool for KDE or GNOME desktop to see the supported configuration. In case, if you don’t have then you can install it by using the below command as the root user.
# yum groupinstall “X Window System” “GNOME Desktop Environment”
# yum groupinstall “X Window System” “KDE (K Desktop Environment)”
Step 6: Once you have installed the X Window System, run the command as a normal user to see the wine configuration.
Step 7: Now, all the process is completed and I hope you have also successfully installed Wine so now it’s time to run it. To run Wine, you must specify the full path to the executable program. For example, shown below:
$ wine notepad
$ wine notepad.exe
$ wine c:\windows\notepad.exe
The above is the complete guide to install Wine on Linux, CentOS and Fedora, if you face any problem or error regarding it then share your comments below by the comment form so that we can help you to solve your problem easily and quickly!
How to install/update VLC on Ubuntu/Linux/Linux Mint
If I ask which is the best audio/video player for PC then the reply will be only one,i.e., “VLC Media Player”.VLC – the most used and download media player supporting in all OS like Windows, Mac OS, Linux, etc.
VLC can play all the video and audio formats files (MPEG, DivX/Xvid, Ogg, and many more) as well as DVDs, VCDs, and various streaming protocols. If you want to install VLC on Windows then it is a very easy task but if you want to install VLC on Ubuntu, Linux, Mac OS, etc. then it’s a little bit difficult.
So, I will teach you, “How to install and update VLC on Ubuntu/Linux/Linux Mint to the latest release“.
Simple steps to install and update VLC on Ubuntu/Linux/Linux as follows:
- Make sure you have a working internet connection
- Then, you have to open a terminal by pressing “Ctrl+Alt+T” to execute the following commands
- After opening the terminal copy the following commands in a new Terminal window
- Commands are as follows:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:videolan/stable-daily
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install vlc
- Check the terminal if all the process is over then close it and check by playing audio/video whether VLC is installed correctly or not.
- If yes, then Enjoy!
A simple procedure to follow to install/update vlc on Ubuntu/Linux/Linux Mint. If you have any query or problem regarding installing or updating VLC then put your comments in the below comment box so that we can help you.
You can visit the official VLC media player website to know about the latest release and bugs fixes.
How to Get the Google Chrome Standalone Installer
If you are reading this article, you must be on some sort of Internet Browser. Go ahead, tell me what browser is it?
Chances are it is Google Chrome!
Chrome is hands down the most preferred browser right now and with good reason too. The only hindrance to it is that you will have to download it off the internet every time you use a fresh installation of your desktop OS.
Well, not anymore! We have for you the chrome standalone installer!
But, before we get to that, let us find out why we are listing Chrome as the first choice browser and not any other browser.
Why Chrome of All Browsers?
Well, the answer is relatively simple. Chrome is the best browser around.
“But on what grounds?”, you ask.
On several, actually. Chrome has been found to be the fastest and most stable browser around.
Competitors Firefox and Microsoft with their new Edge browser seem to be catching up, but Chrome is yet to give up its crown. Opera had a salient feature with data connectivity, but even that has been remedied with a chrome plug-in.
Another feature that Chrome offers is syncing tabs and histories and passwords between the mobile and desktop counterparts and this is one feature that no one yet has been able to implement so perfectly!
Why the Chrome Standalone Installer?
You all must be wondering, what is the use of having a google chrome offline download because it’s an internet browser! It won’t function without the internet!
Well, let me give you three scenarios where you’d have to download chrome offline!
- If due to work or some other reason you have to install the browser on many machines simultaneously, then the chrome standalone installer comes in incredibly handy!
- If you’re on a very slow internet connection, then downloading Chrome every time you start from a fresh install of your OS can be tiresome! The google chrome offline download the app will save you some precious time!
- If you’re on a metered connection then installing Chrome via online methods will blow a part of your data cap away! Download chrome offline for such situations.
How to use the Chrome Standalone Installer
There are two main environments where Chrome runs. Windows and Linux. We will discuss how to use the Chrome Standalone Installer in both of these.
As an extra, a valid and up to date link to the Android apk for Chrome will also be provided should one want it available on their Android devices!
#1. Offline Installer for Windows
Windows come loaded by default with Intenet Explorer. However, most of us substitute it with Chrome right off the bat!
For the installation procedure to be completely offline we will need to follow the steps as listed below.
The first order of business is to check the architecture of the system we are running. We have to find out if we are running the 32 or 64-bit architecture of Windows.
This can be done with relative ease by right-clicking on the Computer icon> Properties.
We also have a choice of the operating system here, 32 or 64 bit and based on what we found in Step 1 we install the version of Windows relevant to us.
64-bit users of Windows offline will find it at this link.
The installer is saved on a thumb drive and is ready to be utilized on any Windows-based PC.
#2. Offline Installer for Linux
Now things can get a wee bit more tricky for Linux users out there. There are 4 main versions available!
Figure out if you’re running the 32 or 64-bit version of your OS just like before and if you’re using Ubuntu or Fedora. Unfortunately, these are the only two Linux distros officially supported by Google.
If you have any other distro you may check out community builds in the link here.
Now head on over to this link and choose the version you want to download!
And like before, put in a safe storage media for future offline installations!
#3. Offline Installer for Android
And now for the bonus round! Chrome is generally bundled with Android as part of the Google Apps package.
However, a situation with which Custom ROM flashers must be very familiar with is flashing a micro version of Gapps that doesn’t contain Google Chrome!
For those times you have to download chrome offline!
Here is the link to apk mirror for the latest apk of Chrome on Android.
And that brings us to the end of this article! If you are considering to upgrade to Windows 10, you might want to check out this article first!
Be sure to leave your comments down below and I’ll get back to you with the solutions to any questions you might have!
How to Dual Boot Ubuntu with Windows
Windows is the most popular OS for sure. But still, there are many people who like Ubuntu which is an open source Linux OS. You can find many reasons that favour Ubuntu.
Developers prefer open source OS over Windows. But the saddest part is we can’t just ignore Bill Gate’s kid at all. Coolest games and some awesome software are only available for it.
Are you torn in choosing between Ubuntu and Windows? Then, this tutorial is perfectly made for you. Here, you will get to know a way to install and use both the Operating Systems without any loss of data.
What is Dual Booting?
Don’t delete your primary partition right away just because you want to use another OS. Multi-Booting is the way to operate your computer with two or more OS. You can, however, only use one at a time.
Dual booting is a type of multi-boot with which two OS can be installed. Once the process is completed, you will be asked every time at startup to select an OS. I am sure that this would be the ideal option for most of you!
So, today I am sharing an easy procedure to enable dual booting on your PC/Laptop.
For your convenience, I have divided the process into four steps.
Explore the dual boot feature now.
Here is the process for Dual Boot Ubuntu
1. Take Backups
You should take backups of your important files before doing any task that can damage the system when done in an incorrect way. Installing an OS is a sensitive process. If done wrong, it may lead to permanent data loss.
This though is no Herculean task! So stick to my instructions and you’ll be dual booting in no time!
Anyway, prevention is better than cure. Hence, get an external storage device ready and copy your important files and folders to it. Label it and place at an easily accessible place.
2. Get Your Windows Recovery Drive Ready
A Windows recovery disk should be in your hand before installing another OS. You can use it to bring your PC back into its previous state in case anything goes wrong.
A physical disk was provided with old systems with which the recovery could be done. But now, companies never ship one. Instead, they create a secret partition on the hard disk. Using an appropriate utility we can burn a recovery disk using that partition.
For this example, we will be using Windows 8.
After inserting your removable media, click on the Win key (or super key) first. You can now see a right ribbon with a magnifying glass icon on top. Click on it.
Type “Recovery”. From the list, you get, select “Create A Recovery Drive”. You will be asked to grant permission. For every admin-level task, Windows asks this. And you can choose “Yes” without any worry.
Then you will be brought to a Recovery Drive window. Tick the checkbox which says “Copy contents from the recovery partition to the recovery drive”. Then click ‘Next’.
You have to select the drive on which you will be copying recovery partition files. After selecting, click on ‘Next’ to continue.
The process takes time depending on the speed of your USB drive. Usually, it lasts for 10 minutes or so.
You will get a window like this when the drive is ready.
NB: – All the data in the USB are deleted. So make sure not to put any files in it. And after the task is completed, check whether it is able to boot or not.
3. Shrink Partition to Make Room for Ubuntu
Windows installation takes the entire space. So, you need to make a new partition by shrinking the existing one in order to install Ubuntu.
The partition can also be done during installation. But this way is much safer.
At first, press the Win key and click on the search option. Type “Partition” in that field. From the upcoming list select the option, “Create and format partitions”. The disk manager will pop open.
This is the magic wand for you to play with partitioning. Select that drive on which you want to install the secondary OS. Right- click on it and choose “Shrink volume”. Enter a value which is less than the available space to be shrunk.
After the job is completed, you can see an unpartitioned or unallocated space.
NB: – Give at least 10 GB for the new OS.
4. Install Ubuntu
This is the core of the whole process.
1. Click here to visit the official website and download the ISO image of the OS (about 1000 MB size).
2. Burn the file to a DVD, or you can extract the files to a bootable pen drive.
3. Insert the removable media.
4. Change the BIOS options to boot from DVD or flash drive.
5. After booting, you will a screen has given above. From the desktop, double- click on “Install Ubuntu 14.04 LTS”
6. The first action you need to complete is selecting your language. After that, you can go with an internet connection to get instant updates, or else do it later. Click on ‘Continue’
7. On this step, you will be asked to select partition. Select that unpartitioned space which we created. Click ‘Next’
8. The installation has begun and you will be asked to enter some details like time, username and password in several steps. Insert it and click on continue. That’s all.
Congrats. You have done it. Now, you can choose from either Windows or Ubuntu while booting.
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